Environmental Enlightenment #164
By Ami Adini - Reissued November 11, 2014

This is a SHORT, LIGHT and SIMPLE newsletter. Its purpose is to rekindle in the initiated terminology they have once learned, and enlighten the uninitiated on terms they may have heard but never knew the meaning of.

Rocks and Water Series 1

Acknowledgement: United States Geological Survey

Most of the rocks near the Earth’s surface are composed of both solids and voids. The solid part is, of course, much more obvious than the voids, but, without the voids, there would be no water to supply wells and springs.

Water-bearing rocks consist either of unconsolidated (soil-like) deposits or consolidated rocks.

The Earth’s surface in most places is formed by soil and by unconsolidated deposits that range in thickness from a few centimeters near outcrops of consolidated rocks to more than 36,000 feet beneath the delta of the Mississippi River.  The unconsolidated deposits are underlain everywhere by consolidated rocks.

Most unconsolidated deposits consist of material derived from the disintegration of consolidated rocks. The material consists of particles of rocks or minerals ranging in size from fractions of a millimeter (clay size) to several meters (boulders).  Unconsolidated deposits important in ground-water study include, in order of increasing grain size, clay, silt, sand, and gravel. An important group of unconsolidated deposits also includes fragments of shells of marine organisms.

Consolidated rocks consist of mineral particles of different sizes and shapes that have been welded by heat and pressure or by chemical reactions into a solid mass.

Such rocks are commonly referred to in ground-water reports as bedrock. They include sedimentary rocks that were originally unconsolidated and igneous rocks formed from a molten state.

Consolidated sedimentary rocks important in ground-water study include limestone, dolomite, shale, siltstone, sandstone and conglomerate. Igneous rocks include granite and basalt.

You can find past issues of "Environmental Enlightenment" at www.amiadini.com Wealth of information about environmental site assessments in the real estate transactions and issues concerning assessment and cleanup of contamination in the subsurface soil and groundwater.

Call me if you have any questions. There are no obligations.

Ami Adini
Ami Adini & Associates, Inc.
Environmental Consultants
Underground Storage Tank Experts
818-824-8102; 818-824-8112 fax

Ami Adini is a mechanical engineer, California Registered Environmental Assessor, Level II (Exp.), and president of AMI ADINI & ASSOCIATES, INC. (AA&A), an environmental consulting firm specializing in all phases of environmental site assessments and rehabilitation of contaminated sites. AA&A specializes in practical solutions to environmental concerns using the highest standards of ethics and integrity while providing its clients with maximum return on their investments.