Environmental Enlightenment #164
By Ami Adini - Reissued November 11, 2014

This is a SHORT, LIGHT and SIMPLE newsletter. Its purpose is to rekindle in the initiated terminology they have once learned, and enlighten the uninitiated on terms they may have heard but never knew the meaning of.

Rocks and Water Series 1

Acknowledgement: United States Geological Survey

Most of the rocks near the Earth’s surface are composed of both solids and voids. The solid part is, of course, much more obvious than the voids, but, without the voids, there would be no water to supply wells and springs.

Water-bearing rocks consist either of unconsolidated (soil-like) deposits or consolidated rocks.

The Earth’s surface in most places is formed by soil and by unconsolidated deposits that range in thickness from a few centimeters near outcrops of consolidated rocks to more than 36,000 feet beneath the delta of the Mississippi River.  The unconsolidated deposits are underlain everywhere by consolidated rocks.

Most unconsolidated deposits consist of material derived from the disintegration of consolidated rocks. The material consists of particles of rocks or minerals ranging in size from fractions of a millimeter (clay size) to several meters (boulders).  Unconsolidated deposits important in ground-water study include, in order of increasing grain size, clay, silt, sand, and gravel. An important group of unconsolidated deposits also includes fragments of shells of marine organisms.

Consolidated rocks consist of mineral particles of different sizes and shapes that have been welded by heat and pressure or by chemical reactions into a solid mass.

Such rocks are commonly referred to in ground-water reports as bedrock. They include sedimentary rocks that were originally unconsolidated and igneous rocks formed from a molten state.

Consolidated sedimentary rocks important in ground-water study include limestone, dolomite, shale, siltstone, sandstone and conglomerate. Igneous rocks include granite and basalt.

You can find past issues of our "Environmental Enlightenment" at amiadini.com Wealth of information about environmental site assessments in the real estate transactions and issues concerning assessment and cleanup of contamination in the subsurface soil and groundwater.

Call me if you have any questions. There are no obligations.

Ami Adini Environmental Services, Inc.
Environmental Consultants & General Engineering Contractors
California Lic. #1009513 A B HAZ ASB
818-824-8102; mail@amiadini.com

Ami Adini is a veteran environmental practitioner with over 40 years of experience. He carries a Bachelor of Science degree (B.Sc.) in Mechanical Engineering including academic credits in Nuclear and Chemical Engineering and postgraduate education in these fields. His career includes design and construction of nuclear plant facilities, chemical processing plants and hazardous wastewater treatment systems. He is a former California Registered Environmental Assessor Levels I & II in the 1988-2012 registry that certified environmental professionals in the assessment and remediation of environmentally impacted land, and a Registered Environmental Professional (REP) since 1989 with the National Registry of Environmental Professionals (NREP). He is a California Business & Professions Code Qualifying Responsible Managing Officer (RMO) in the General Engineering Contractor classification with Hazardous Substance Removal and Asbestos certifications, and president of AMI ADINI ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES, INC. (AAES), a general engineering contractor and consulting firm specializing in environmental site assessments, rehabilitation of contaminated sites and removal of environmental risks from real-estate transactions. (Contact Ami for a complete resume.) AAES provides practical solutions to environmental concerns using the highest standards of ethics and integrity while providing its clients with maximum return on their investments.