Environmental Enlightenment #106

By Ami Adini - Reissued October 22, 2015

This is a SHORT, LIGHT and SIMPLE newsletter. Its purpose is to rekindle, in the initiated, terminology they have once learned and enlighten the uninitiated on terms they may have heard but never knew the meaning of.

Basic geology terms help understand how contaminants travel in the subsurface environment.

This letter is first in a series that makes basic geology simple.

Geology for the Uninitiated

Fold, in geology, means a bent or deformed arrangement of stratified (layered) rocks.

These rocks may be of sedimentary or volcanic origin. Although stratified rocks are normally deposited on the earth's surface in horizontal layers, they are often found inclined or curved upward or downward.

Arches, or upfolds, in stratified rock are called anticlines.

Depressions or downfolds are called synclines.

Folds are commonly formed at some distance below the surface, but complete folds or portions of folds are exposed by erosion.

Anticlines frequently have their crests eroded, till only the worn-down stumps of the two limbs remain.

[Vasquez 
Rocks]

In a similar manner synclines may be eroded so that only the edges of the limbs project above the surface.

Tremont 
Syncline  

 

The immediate cause of folding is generally conceded to be the horizontal compression of the earth's surface, anticlines being squeezed up by this compression and synclines formed between anticlines.

Porous and permeable rocks of anticlines often contain oil and gas reservoirs.

You can find past issues of our  "Environmental Enlightenment" at amiadini.com Wealth of information about environmental site assessments in the real estate transactions and issues concerning assessment and cleanup of contamination in the subsurface soil and groundwater.

Call me if you have any questions. There are no obligations.

Ami Adini
Ami Adini & Associates, Inc.
Environmental Consultants
Underground Storage Tank Experts
818-824-8102; mail@amiadini.com
www.amiadini.com

Ami Adini is a mechanical engineer, California Registered Environmental Assessor, Level II (Exp.), and president of AMI ADINI & ASSOCIATES, INC. (AA&A), an environmental consulting firm specializing in all phases of environmental site assessments and rehabilitation of contaminated sites. AA&A specializes in practical solutions to environmental concerns using the highest standards of ethics and integrity while providing its clients with maximum return on their investments.