Environmental Enlightenment #237
By Ami Adini -
Issued February 9, 2018

This is a SHORT, LIGHT and SIMPLE newsletter. Its purpose is to rekindle in the initiated concepts they have once learned, and enlighten the uninitiated on concepts they may have never heard of, but will understand once they are introduced to them.

Geology for the Uninitiated

Geological formations play a strong factor in the understanding the propagation of contaminants in the subsurface environment.

Fold, in geology, means a bent or deformed arrangement of stratified (layered) rocks.

These rocks may originate from sediments or from volcanic discharges. Although stratified rocks are normally deposited on the earth's surface in horizontal layers, they are often found inclined or curved upward or downward.

Arches, or upfolds, in stratified rock are called anticlines.


Depressions or downfolds are called synclines.


Folds are commonly formed at some distance below the surface, and then they get exposed by erosion.

Anticlines frequently have their crests eroded, till only the worn-down stumps of the two limbs remain.

In a similar manner synclines may be eroded so that only the edges of the limbs project above the surface.

The cause of folding is generally conceded to be the horizontal compression of the earth's surface, anticlines being squeezed up and synclines formed between anticlines.

 Like a wave pattern:  



Porous and permeable rocks of anticlines often contain oil and gas reservoirs.


Credit for definitions is granted to The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright 2003, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/


You can find past issues of our "Environmental Enlightenment" at amiadini.com Wealth of information about environmental site assessments in the real estate transactions and issues concerning assessment and cleanup of contamination in the subsurface soil and groundwater.

Call me if you have any questions. There are no obligations.

Ami Adini Environmental Services, Inc.
Environmental Consultants & General Engineering Contractors
California Lic. #1009513 A B HAZ ASB
818-824-8102; mail@amiadini.com

Ami Adini is a veteran environmental practitioner with over 40 years of experience. He carries a Bachelor of Science degree (B.Sc.) in Mechanical Engineering including academic credits in Nuclear and Chemical Engineering and postgraduate education in these fields. His career includes design and construction of nuclear plant facilities, chemical processing plants and hazardous wastewater treatment systems. He is a former California Registered Environmental Assessor Levels I & II in the 1988-2012 registry that certified environmental professionals in the assessment and remediation of environmentally impacted land, and a Registered Environmental Professional (REP) since 1989 with the National Registry of Environmental Professionals (NREP). He is a California Business & Professions Code Qualifying Responsible Managing Officer (RMO) in the General Engineering Contractor classification with Hazardous Substance Removal and Asbestos certifications, and president of AMI ADINI ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES, INC. (AAES), a general engineering contractor and consulting firm specializing in environmental site assessments, rehabilitation of contaminated sites and removal of environmental risks from real-estate transactions. (Contact Ami for a complete resume.) AAES provides practical solutions to environmental concerns using the highest standards of ethics and integrity while providing its clients with maximum return on their investments.